2015年10月14日 星期三

What Freedom Is?

Freedom is man’s capacity to take a hand in his own development. It is our capacity to mold ourselves. Freedom is the other side of consciousness of self; if we were not able to aware of ourselves, we would be pushed along by instinct or the automatic march of history, like bees or mastodons…

Consciousness of self gives us the power to stand outside the rigid chain of stimulus and response, to pause, and by this pause to throw some weight on either side, to cast some decision about what the response will be…

As the person gains more consciousness of self, his range of choice and his freedom proportionately increase. Freedom is cumulative; one choice made with an element of freedom makes greater freedom possible for the next choice. Each exercise of freedom enlarges the circumference of the circle of one’s self…

Freedom is shown in how we relate to the deterministic realities of life…Freedom is involved when we accept the realities not by blind necessity but by choice. This means that the acceptance of limitations need not all be a “giving up,” but can and should be a constructive act of freedom; and it may well be that such a choice will have more creative results for the person than if he had not had to struggle against any limitation whatever. The man who is devoted to freedom does not waste time fighting reality; instead as Kierkegaard remarked, he “extols reality.”

Whether one has tuberculosis or is a slave like the Roman philosopher Epictetus or a prisoner condemned to death, he can still in his freedom choose how he will relate to these facts…Freedom is most dramatically illustrated in the ‘heroic’ actions, like Socrates’ decision to drink the hemlock rather than compromise; but even more significant is the undramatic, steady day-to-day exercise of freedom on the part of any person developing toward psychological and spiritual integration in a distraught society like our own.

Thus freedom is not just the matter of saying “” or “” to a specific decision: it is the power to mold and create ourselves. Freedom is the capacity, to use Nietzsche’s phrase, “to become what we truly are.”

Rollo May, “Man’s Search for Himself”, (New York: Dell Publishing, 1953), p.160-173.

Ideal Society

We simply propose that our social and economic ideal be that society which gives the maximum opportunity for each person in it to realize himself, to develop and use his potentialities and to labor as a human being of dignity giving to and receiving from his fellow men. The good society is, thus, the one which gives the greatest freedom to its people – freedom defined not negatively and defensively, but positively, as the opportunity to realize ever greater human values. It follows that collectivism, as in fascism and communism, is the denial of these values, and must be opposed at all costs. But we shall successfully overcome them only as we are devoted to positive ideals which are better, chiefly the building of society based on a genuine respect for persons and their freedom.

Rollo May, “Man’s Search for Himself”, (New York: Dell Publishing, 1953), p.160.

2015年3月18日 星期三

Global Nonviolent Action Database

About the Database
Why this database?
  1. To provide free access to information about hundreds of cases of nonviolent action for learning and for citizen action. We research campaigns that have reached a point of completion. The cases are drawn from all continents and most countries. People are shown struggling for human rights, economic justice, democracy, national and ethnic identity, environmental sustainability, and peace. To learn more about searching by the issues people are struggling about, go to Issue Clusters.
  2. To make available comparative information that will support researchers and writers to develop strategic knowledge and theory. Each case is presented in two formats: the database file (with searchable fields) and the narrative describing the struggle as an unfolding story. The database supports searches by country, by issue, by action method used, and even by year -- there is a case from ancient Egypt, 12th century BCE! Some cases are part of a “wave” of campaigns, such as the “Arab Awakening” of 2011; by pressing each “wave” button one can find cases.
See the other sections under the About menu for more on the coding, uses, limitations, and building of the Global Nonviolent Action Database.
- George Lakey 12/08/2011
A project of Swarthmore College, including Peace and Conflict Studies, the Peace Collection, and the Lang Center for Civic and Social Responsibility. 
Copyright Swarthmore College.

Source: nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu

2015年1月5日 星期一







無權者的權力 (第四章)




人們毋須(從心底)相信這一切令人分不清真假對錯的東西,但他們必須裝成篤信不疑的樣子,至少對一切保持緘默、忍,又或隨波逐流。這樣,每個人都只能在謊言中求。人們不必去接受謊言,只要他們受在謊言下以此度日,這就夠了。就是這樣,人們確認了這個制度,满足了運作這個制度的要求,製造了這個制度,也就成為這個制度的一分子 (陳汝達 重譯)


哈維爾著(吴小洲、張婭曾、劉康譯)<無權者的權力>(第四章),載於崔衛平等譯:《哈維爾文集 生活在真實中》(北京:外文出版社,2013),頁48